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九年級英語知識點:在句尾出現的介詞

作者:未知     來源:網絡    2017-03-21

 
  導讀:我們常常聽人家說:不要把介詞(prepositions)放在句尾,以免削弱句子的氣勢。
 
  實際上,英語的介詞是可以在句尾出現的;有時還是非在句尾不可。請看這句:
 
  “I may give you financial aid. But it all depends on what the money is for.”
 
  這句話的介詞“for”在句尾出現。如果把“for”移到賓語之前,就不合句法了:
 
  *“……But it all depends on for what the money is.”
 
  這么看來,英語介詞是可以放在句尾的。既然如此,在什么情況下,英語介詞才可以放在句尾呢?
 
  常見的情況有下面 4 種:
 
  ㈠當疑問代詞或疑問副詞作為介詞的賓語時,理論上要在介詞后面出現,但在實際用法上,它被轉移到疑問句前頭,介詞則留在句尾。例如:
 
  ① What are you dreaming of?
 
  ② Where are you from?
 
  ①不能改為“Are you dreaming of what?”也不能是“Of what are you dreaming?”②不是“Are you from where?”,更不是“ From where are you?”
 
  ㈡介詞不能移到限定性形容詞分句中的關系代詞(the relative pronoun in the restricted adjective clause)之前;因此,我們可以③表示心意,但不能用④這樣的句子:
 
  ③ Is this the book that you asked me for?
 
  *④ Is this the book for that you asked me?
 
  同樣的,⑤是對的,⑥是錯的:
 
  ⑤ This is the goal that we are striving towards.
 
  *⑥ This is the goal towards that we are striving.
 
  ㈢在不可分開的片語動詞(the inseparable phrasal verb)里,如果介詞在句尾,也只好隨遇而安,不便移動。例如:
 
  ⑦ This is something which I refuse to put up with.
 
  ⑧ Such a matter should be immediately dealt with.
 
  ⑨ An 8% increase in salary is not to be sniffed at.
 
  ⑩ The rising cost is really a thing to be reckoned with.
 
  ㈣當帶介詞的不定式動詞修飾名詞而又出現在句尾時,這介詞只好保留在原位。例如:
 
  11. David is a nice person to work with.
 
  12. I like to have someone to talk to.
 
  13. This is not a comfortable place to live in.
 
  14. Give me a good pen to write with.
 
  15. Is this a box to put coins in?
 
  16. There is some useful information for you to refer to.
 
  綜上所述,英語介詞不但可以在句尾出現,有時還非在句尾不可!
 
  除了所舉的情況之外,盡量避免把介詞放在句尾。例如17-19雖沒有什么問題,但不如20-22好和自然:
 
  17. Can you tell me whom do you share your office with?
 
  18. This is the last way which the idea can be pushed through.
 
  19. What reason have you chosen this scheme for?
 
  20. Can you tell me with whom do you share your office?
 
  21. This is the best way through which the idea can be pushed.
 
  22. For what reason have you chosen this scheme?
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